2023/01 Classification of Kinematic and Electromyographic Signals Associated with Pathological Tremor Using Machine and Deep Learning


“Peripheral Electrical Stimulation (PES) of afferent pathways has received increased interest as a solution to reduce pathological tremors with minimal side effects. Closed-loop PES systems might present some advantages in reducing tremors, but further developments are required in order to reliably detect pathological tremors to accurately enable the stimulation only if a tremor is present. This study explores different machine learning (K-Nearest Neighbors, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines) and deep learning (Long Short-Term Memory neural networks) models in order to provide a binary (Tremor; No Tremor) classification of kinematic (angle displacement) and electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from patients diagnosed with essential tremors and healthy subjects. Three types of signal sequences without any feature extraction were used as inputs for the classifiers: kinematics (wrist flexion–extension angle), raw EMG and EMG envelopes from wrist flexor and extensor muscles. All the models showed high classification scores (Tremor vs. No Tremor) for the different input data modalities, ranging from 0.8 to 0.99 for the f1 score. The LSTM models achieved 0.98 f1 scores for the classification of raw EMG signals, showing high potential to detect tremors without any processed features or preliminary information. These models may be explored in real-time closed-loop PES strategies to detect tremors and enable stimulation with minimal signal processing steps.”